Muslim Scientists and Thinkers
(700 - 1450 A.D.)

Islam & Science

Welcome to the web page on Muslim contribution to humanity and Islamic Civilization. This page is dedicated to those Muslims whose multi-disciplinary contributions sparked the light of learning and productivity. Their contributions are rarely mentioned in formal education, and if at all mentioned their names are Latinized or changed with the effect of obscuring their identity and origin, and their association with the Islamic Civilization.

Verily in the creation of the heavens and the earth, and the alternation of night and day - there are indeed signs for men of understanding; Men who remember Allah, standing, sitting, and lying down on their sides, and contemplate the creation of the heavens and the earth (with the thought) "Our Lord! Not for nothing have You created (all) this. Glory to You! Give us salvation from the suffering of the Fire." Holy Qur'an 3:190-191

This is a list of some of the leading Muslims. Major Muslim contributions continued beyond the fifteenth century. Contributions of more than one hundred other major Muslim personalities can be found in several famous publications by Western historians.

Name Description Years (A.D.)
Jabir Ibn Haiyan  (Geber) Chemistry (Father of Chemistry) Died 803
Al-Asmai Zoology, Botany, Animal Husbandry. 740 - 828
Musa Al-Khwarizmi ( Algorizm) Mathematics, Astronomy, Geography. (Algorithm, Algebra, calculus) 770 - 840
Amr ibn Bahr Al-Jahiz Zoology, Arabic Grammar, Rhetoric, Lexicography 776 - 868
Yaqub Ibn Ishaq Al-Kindi ( Alkindus) Philosophy, Physics, Optics, Medicine, Mathematics, Metallurgy. 800 - 873
Thabit Ibn Qurrah (Thebit) Astronomy, Mechanics, Geometry, Anatomy. 836 - 901
Abbas Ibn Firnas Mechanics of Flight, Planetarium, Artificial Crystals. Died 888
Ali Ibn Rabban Al-Tabari Medicine, Mathematics, Caligraphy, Literature. 838 - 870
Abu Abdullah Al-Battani (Albategnius) Astronomy, mathematics, Trigonometry. 858 - 929
Ibn Kathir Al-Farghani (Al-Fraganus) Astronomy, Civil Engineering. 860
Zakariya Al-Razi (Rhazes) Medicine, Ophthalmology, Smallpox, Chemistry, Astronomy. 864 - 930
Abu Al-Nasr Al-Farabi (Al-Pharabius) Sociology, Logic, Philosophy, Political Science, Music. 870 - 950
Abul Hasan Ali Al-Masu'di Geography, History. Died 957
Al-Sufi ( Azophi ) Astronomy 903 - 986
Abu Al-Qasim Al-Zahravi (Albucasis) Surgery, Medicine.
(Father of Modern Surgery)
936 - 1013
Muhammad Al-Buzjani Mathematics, Astronomy, Geometry, Trigonometry. 940 - 997
Hasan Ibn Al-Haitham (Alhazen) Physics, Optics, Mathematics. 965 - 1040
Abu Al-Hasan Al-Mawardi (Alboacen) Political Science, Sociology, Jurisprudence, Ethics. 972 - 1058
Abu Raihan Al-Biruni Astronomy, Mathematics. (Determined Earth's Circumference) 973-1048
Ibn Sina (Avicenna) Medicine, Philosophy, Mathematics, Astronomy. 981 - 1037
Al-Zarqali (Arzachel) Astronomy (Invented Astrolabe). 1028 - 1087
Omar Al-Khayyam Mathematics, Poetry. 1044 - 1123
Abu Hamid Al-Ghazali (Algazel) Sociology, Theology, Philosophy. 1058 - 1111
Abu Bakr Muhammad Ibn Yahya
(Ibn Bajjah)
Philosophy, Medicine, Mathematics, Astronomy, Poetry, Music. 1106 - 1138
Ibn Zuhr (Avenzoar) Surgery, Medicine. 1091 - 1161
Al-Idrisi (Dreses) Geography (World Map, First Globe). 1099 - 1166
Ibn Tufayl, Abdubacer Philosophy, Medicine, Poetry. 1110 - 1185
Ibn Rushd (Averroes) Philosophy, Law, Medicine, Astronomy, Theology. 1128 - 1198
Al-Bitruji (Alpetragius) Astronomy Died 1204
Ibn Al-Baitar Pharmacy, Botany Died 1248
Nasir Al-Din Al-Tusi Astronomy, Non-Euclidean Geometry. 1201 - 1274
Jalal Al-Din Rumi Sociology 1207 - 1273
Ibn Al-Nafis Damishqui Anatomy 1213 - 1288
Al-Fida (Abdulfeda) Astronomy, Geography, Histrory. 1273 - 1331
Muhammad Ibn Abdullah (Ibn Battuta) World Traveler. 75,000 mile voyage from Morocco to China and back. 1304 - 1369
Ibn Khaldun Sociology, Philosophy of History, Political Science. 1332 - 1395
Ulugh Beg Astronomy 1393 - 1449

Two hundred years before a comparable development elsewhere, Turkish scientist Hazarfen Ahmet Celebi took off from Galata tower and flew over the Bosphorus. Fifty years later Logari Hasan Celebi, another member of the Celebi family, sent the first manned rocket into upper atmosphere, using 150 okka (about 300 pounds) of gunpowder as the firing fuel.

Tipu, Sultan of Mysore [1783-1799] in the south of India, was the innovator of the world's first war rocket. Two of his rockets, captured by the British at Srirangapatana, are displayed in the Woolwich Museum Artillery in London. The rocket motor casing was made of steel with multiple nozzles. The rocket, 50mm in diameter and 250mm long, had a range performance of 900 meters to 1.5 km.

The dates in the table are converted from the Islamic calendar (A.H.) which begins with Hijra, the migration of Prophet Muhammad (s) from Makkah to Medinah. The calendar is based on lunar monthly cycles. 1 A.H. = 622 C.E.
Acknowledgements: Information in this page taken from website.

Read the holy verse below while you watch the moving is quite fitting,
Masha Allah! Subhana Allah...all glory is due to ALLAH

Holy Qur-an, Surat Al-A'raf, Chapter - 7, Verse - 54

Your Guardian Lord Is Allah, Who created The heavens and the earth In six Days, then He Settled Himself on the Throne(of authority): He draweth The night as a veil O'er the day, each seeking The other in rapid succession: And the sun, The moon, and the stars, (All) are subserviant By His command. Verily, His are the creation and the Command Blessed be Allah, the Cherisher And Sustainer of the Worlds!


Rise And Fall Of Muslim Scientists

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